An Agriculture Case Study
In the animal farming (poultry, cattle, pigs), the use of water with adequate physical, chemical and microbiological quality is of fundamental importance. Installed hydration systems deliver a homogeneous water supply to large numbers of animals, thus water quality problems within these systems can cause widespread impacts to a large population of animals. Drinking water plays an important role in the transmission of some bacterial, viral and protozoan diseases. To prevent waterborne diseases the protection of supply sources, water disinfection and quality control of microbial, chemical and physical characteristics must be sustained.


Site: Mantova Province, Northern Italy Capacity: 600 Calf’s
Water consumption: 15-20m3/day or Source: Well and aquifer water
Water Issues:
Presence of microorganisms (> 500 cfu) due to biofilm build up in piping system, Coliform bacteria, E-coli bacteria, Enterococci, Elevated presence of Manganese and ammonia.

The Farmer has used standard solutions for removal of biofilm (peroxide or chlorine-based chemicals), which did not produce satisfactory results and had negative impact on animal health and wellbeing due to residuals in the water. As a consequence, animals suffered increased infections and elevated stress, which led to higher level of mortality, elevated antibiotic treatment and lower production quality.  



When chlorine is used for water disinfection, it produces carcinogenic THMs as by product. Instead, ozone can be used as a disinfectant, decolorizer, deodorizer, detoxifier, precipitant, coagulant and for removing foul tastes.

Furthermore, ozone does not leave any residuals as it dissolves into oxygen. Most common ozone treatment solutions, on the market, are very expensive and as ozone has a short, 18-minute half-life, the treatment options are limited. Only when Ozone is inserted into Ultrafine bubbles is its half-life extended allowing it to be a viable, broad based, cleaning agent.

Based on site assessment the and water analysis data, our team of experts recommended treatment of the well water with our Ultrafine bubble generator and an ozone generator. The objectives for the treatment were to:
• Remove pathogens from the water
• Remove biofilm in the piping system
• Terminate use of chlorine
• Reduce number of treatment steps and filters • Stabilize the quality of the water
• Decrease the animal stress
• Improve mortality rate
• Lower use of antibiotics



Ultrafine bubble generator was installed at the farm in November 2017. Implementation time was less than half day, including the power supply, piping and ozone generator setup.

Pre-Treatment water analysis revealed following water quality level:
• Total microorganisms: > 500 cfu/ml • Total coliforms: > 25 cfu/ml
• pH: 8
• Chlorine: 30 mg/l

After 60 days of treatment
Post-Treatment water analysis revealed the following water quality level:
• Total microorganisms: 0 cfu/ml
• Total coliforms: 0 cfu/ml
• Dissolved oxygen in water: 100%
• Biofilm completely removed in the piping system
After 190 days (end of the elevation cycle)
• Total microorganisms: 0 cfu/ml • Total coliforms: 0 cfu/ml
• pH: 7.3
• Chlorine: 19 mg/l
• Improved health (- 10% use of antibiotics)
• Improved metabolism (+15% animal muscular weight gain)
• Improved appetite (0% of production waste)